Waste is a byproduct of human activity. Physically, it contains the same materials as are found in useful products. It only differs from useful production by its lack of value. EU Waste Framework Directive defines waste as “any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard”. Possible classifications of waste can be by:

-physical state (solid, liquid, gaseous)

-original use (packaging waste, food waste etc.)

-material type (glass, paper etc.)

-physical properties  (recyclable, compostable etc.)

-origin (domestic, commercial, agricultural, industrial etc.)

-safety level (hazardous, non-hazardous, inert)

Elements of integrated waste management system are:

-waste generation

-waste storage

-waste collection

-waste transport and transfer

-waste treatment

-waste landfilling

Integrated waste management systems combine waste streams, waste collection, treatment and disposal methods, with the objective of achieving environmental benefits, economic optimisation and societal acceptability.

Key principles of waste management:

-the principle of applying the most practical option for the environment

-the proximity principle and regional approach to waste management

-the polluter pays principle

-the hierarchy of waste management principle

-the producer responsibility principle

The waste hierarchy ranks waste management options according to what is best for the environment:

– Prevention or reduction minimizes the generation of waste products

– Re-use




EASD have references related waste management (12), Waste and human health / Waste and health: evidence and needs ; InWASTEgate ; Scientific signals: Waste as the crosscutting issue of SDGs Waste, health, sustainability: what way forward? EASD participate: IPEN Regional meeting, Prague 16-20 October 2014 ; To report: The first Regional Conference on Circular Economy was success